1703 North Beauregard St.
Alexandria, VA 22311-1714
Tel: 1-800-933-ASCD (2723)
8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. eastern time, Monday through Friday
Local to the D.C. area: 1-703-578-9600, press 2
Toll-free from U.S. and Canada: 1-800-933-ASCD (2723), press 2
All other countries: (International Access Code) + 1-703-578-9600, press 2
Tackling Informational Texts
November 7, 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 3
Table of Contents
What the Mind Needs to Do to Read Nonfiction
Many children are not strategic readers of nonfiction text; they dive into reading nonfiction the same way they approach a story or a novel. But if students are to become literate readers in a world filled with an abundance of information, they need to be good readers and strategic readers. Strategic readers
When we bring nonfiction text and content in our classrooms, we are giving our students an invitation to know things deeply. If students are able to comprehend the text, they can be independent, strategic users, consumers, and creators of information. Here are five ways to help students become strategic readers of nonfiction text.
1. Teach text types and purposes.
Students are likely to encounter three broad categories of informational texts: texts that are common in their day-to-day lives, texts that can be found in the general classroom, and texts that are found only in content area-specific classrooms. For each type, the key to understanding the text is recognizing its specific purpose and employing the appropriate thinking skills to comprehend the text.
2. Teach specific nonfiction structures.
Teach your students the different types of nonfiction text structures and how to analyze text to determine its structure type before they begin reading. This way, the text structure can buoy them along as they work through a text. Research shows that skilled readers with a good understanding of nonfiction text structure have fewer problems with comprehension (Pearson & Duke, 2002).
Nonfiction text structures include the following types:
3. Teach understanding; avoid coverage.
Too often, we get stuck in the feeling that we have to read to students or tell them information in a textbook to ensure learning, but we have to shift from our brains doing the work to letting our students' brains doing the work. Our students need to be independent learners and information consumers; you can ensure this by going deeply into teaching a couple comprehension strategies. For example, you can help students grab and retain the main idea of nonfiction texts by teaching them to ask "why" questions.
When students ask why questions, they learn and remember more information (Pressley & Wharton-McDonald, 1997). By asking why questions, students orient themselves to the main idea and details through reading and rereading to answer their questions and figure out why the new ideas in the text make sense.
4. Teach vocabulary through concepts.
Students who are skilled readers learn quite a bit of vocabulary through incidental reading (Nagy, Anderson, & Herman, 1987). However, just because students can learn vocabulary through reading, it doesn't mean that we should assign students to read nonfiction texts and let them "have at it" and hope word meanings sink in deeply. Rather, we need to teach students to focus on recognizing and exploring key vocabulary terms in informational text.
I recommend teaching deeply only a few words—the key is choosing the right words to teach. We might gravitate toward the low-frequency but intriguing words that appear in nonfiction text. These words are usually discipline-specific and may not be the ones to teach before reading. Often, students can figure out the meaning of these words while reading. We need to teach the words that appear frequently in the text and hold meaning that is essential to comprehension.
Word learning strategies also help students learn new vocabulary and give them the power to tackle nonfiction text without giving up. Word learning strategies include
5. Teach summary skills.
Teaching students to summarize is teaching them to focus their attention, and this is important for guiding students to own their reading. Two types of thinking are needed for summary writing, the ability to
Teaching students to make generalizations about a text will strengthen their selection and reduction skills by engaging the brain in deletion, generalization, and construction. All three processes are truly helpful in teaching students to write summaries, so we want them to engage in these processes as much as possible.
Engage a New Generation of Readers
With the world of information changing rapidly, it isn't enough to teach strategic reading strategies for only the printed texts that students encounter in our classrooms. We have to teach strategic reading strategies for all texts that students encounter and use on a daily basis.
Our job as teachers is to help students sustain attention and comprehension while reading all forms of nonfiction texts and apply these skills to multiple literacies. By bringing all forms of nonfiction into our classrooms and giving our students the cognitive tools to understand, access, and manipulate the information, we can unleash the world for them.
Nagy, W. E., Anderson, R. C., & Herman, P. A. (1987). Learning word meanings from context during normal reading. America Educational Research Journal, 24(2), 237–270.
Pearson, P.D., & Duke, N. K. (2002). Comprehension instruction in the primary grades. In C. C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 247–258). New York: Guilford.
Pressley, M., & Wharton-McDonald, R. (1997). Skilled comprehension and its development through instruction. School Psychology Review, 26(3), 448–466.
Nancy Akhavan is an assistant professor at California State University, Fresno. Akhavan is also an author, speaker, and education consultant.
ASCD Express, Vol. 9, No. 3. Copyright 2013 by ASCD. All rights reserved. Visit www.ascd.org/ascdexpress.
Subscribe to ASCD Express, our twice-monthly e-mail newsletter, to have practical, actionable strategies and information delivered to your e-mail inbox twice a month.
ASCD respects intellectual property rights and adheres to the laws governing them. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online.