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Learned intelligence might strike some as an oxymoron. The coupling of this phrase with the factor of background knowledge is certainly not common. However, at least one type of intelligence is learned; this type of intelligence is, for all practical purposes, the same as background knowledge.
Intelligence: The Two Types
I preface the examination of the research on intelligence by noting that some discussions make a distinction between intelligence and aptitude (Anastasi, 1982; Snow & Lohman, 1989). However useful, the distinction is a fairly technical one and does not serve the purposes of this chapter. Consequently, throughout this chapter and the remainder of the book, the terms intelligence and aptitude are used interchangeably.