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by Robert J. Marzano
Table of Contents
In Chapter 2, I alluded to the fact that leadership was purposely omitted from my model of factors associated with student achievement. This is not because leadership is unimportant. On the contrary, leadership could be considered the single most important aspect of effective school reform. It is frequently mentioned in the early research on school effectiveness (Brookover et al., 1978, 1979; Edmonds, 1979a, 1979b, 1979c, 1981a, 1981b; Purkey & Smith, 1982, 1983; Rutter et al., 1979) and continues to be a staple in the research (Scheerens & Bosker, 1997; Teddlie & Reynolds, 2000).
The strongest reason for separating leadership from the model of factors is that it influences virtually every aspect of the model presented in this book. Leadership is a necessary condition for effective reform relative to the school-level, the teacher-level, and the student-level factors. To illustrate, research indicates that leadership has a strong relationship with (among others)
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