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April 2-4, 2016
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ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show

2016 ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show

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Habits of Mind Across the Curriculum

Edited by Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick

Table of Contents

About the Editors and Contributors

Arthur L. Costa is emeritus professor of education at California State University, Sacramento, and cofounder of the Institute for Intelligent Behavior in El Dorado Hills, California. He has served as a classroom teacher, a curriculum consultant, an assistant superintendent for instruction, and the director of educational programs for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He has made presentations and conducted workshops in all 50 states as well as Mexico, Central and South America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and the Islands of the South Pacific.

Costa has devoted his career to improving education through more thought-full instruction and assessment. In addition to writing numerous journal articles, he edited the book Developing Minds: A Resource Book for Teaching Thinking and is the author of The Enabling Behaviors and The School as a Home for the Mind. He is coauthor of Techniques for Teaching Thinking (with Larry Lowery) and Cognitive Coaching: A Foundation for Renaissance Schools (with Bob Garmston). He is also coeditor of Assessment in the Learning Organization, Assessment Strategies for Self-Directed Learning, and the Habits of Mind Series (with Bena Kallick); the trilogy Process as Content (with Rosemarie Liebmann); and Thinking-Based Learning (with Robert Swartz, Bena Kallick, Barry Beyer, and Rebecca Reagan). His works have been translated into Dutch, Chinese, Spanish, Hebrew, and Arabic.

Active in many professional organizations, Costa served as president of the California Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development and was the president of ASCD from 1988 to 1989. Costa can be reached at 916-791-7304; e-mail:

Bena Kallick is a private consultant providing services to school districts, state departments of education, professional organizations, and public agencies throughout the United States and internationally. Kallick received her doctorate in educational evaluation from Union Graduate School. Her areas of focus include group dynamics, creative and critical thinking, and alternative assessment strategies in the classroom. Her written work includes Literature to Think About (a whole language curriculum published with Weston Woods Studios), Changing Schools into Communities for Thinking, Assessment in the Learning Organization, Assessment Strategies for Self-Directed Learning, Habits of Mind series, Thinking-Based Learning, Using Curriculum Mapping and Assessment to Improve Student Learning, many as collaborative efforts.

Formerly a teachers' center director, Kallick also created a children's museum based on problem solving and invention. She was the coordinator of a high school alternative designed for at-risk students. She is cofounder of Performance Pathways, a company dedicated to providing easy-to-use software that helps integrate and make sense of data from curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Kallick has taught at Yale University School of Organization and Management, University of Massachusetts Center for Creative and Critical Thinking, and Union Graduate School. She served on the board of Jobs for the Future. Kallick can be reached at 12 Crooked Mile Rd., Westport, CT 06880; phone/fax: 203-227-7261; e-mail:

James Anderson is a former middle school teacher and curriculum coordinator at the Grange P-12 College in Hoppers Crossing, Victoria, Australia, where he was responsible for introducing and implementing a program for teaching thinking and Habits of Mind. He is the founding director and principal consultant of MindfulbyDesign. Anderson developed, launched, and led the first collaborative, generative network of educators dedicated to exploring the Habits of Mind. Since 2005, he has led the growth of this network throughout Australia, has supported hundreds of schools throughout Australia and abroad, and has helped extend our understanding of the Habits of Mind through major events like the International Habits of Mind Expo in 2007 (the first of its kind anywhere in the world). Anderson is a highly experienced and engaging presenter with experience at all levels of schooling from early learning through the tertiary level. He has presented to business audiences and consulted extensively with schools. Anderson is Australia's leading authority on Habits of Mind and the regional director of Art Costa and Bena Kallick's Institute for Habits of Mind. Anderson is endorsed to train and support schools and others in Habits of Mind. He offers consultancy and training services through his company Mindful by Design:

Damian Baynes is the Head of Junior School at the Australian International School Malaysia. Previously he taught in a small country town in South Australia and in a remote Aboriginal community on the Nullarbor Plains of Australia. He first encountered the Habits of Mind when he became interested in student-initiated learning. The Habits of Mind seemed a logical companion to such a program, and they became a tool that guided the learning in his classroom. He constructed learning tasks with the Habits of Mind embedded within them, and the habits became a means by which students were able to engage in assessment as learning, to reflect on themselves as learners, and to self-regulate their performance and set goals for future gains.

Rachel Billmeyer is an educational consultant who helps schools strengthen their reading education programs with particular emphasis on reading in the content areas and improving reading assessment practices. Her first major publication in the field of reading was Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Then Who? published by McREL (Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning) in 1996. The positive response to this book encouraged Billmeyer to elaborate on her work by writing a trilogy focusing on reading content, strategies, and reading assessment. Those publications are Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Practical Applications for Creating a Thinking Environment; Strategies to Engage the Mind of the Learner: Building Strategic Learners; and Capturing All of the Reader Through the Reading Assessment System: Practical Applications for Guiding Strategic Readers. Billmeyer may be contacted at

Kevin Clune teaches mathematics to 8th grade students at Pelham Middle School in New York and conducts professional development workshops that demonstrate his use of the Habits of Mind. Before becoming a teacher, he was a civil litigation attorney for 20 years.

Alan Cooper is an educational consultant in New Zealand. He has taught at all levels of education in New Zealand and served as a principal for 20 years. During this time his school became the first in New Zealand to introduce both Dunn and Dunn's Learning Styles and Hyerle's Thinking Maps schoolwide. He is an accredited trainer in the Habits of Mind. Most recently he has acted as tutor and consultant to the Christchurch College of Education's postgraduate paper on multiple intelligences. He has written widely for educational publications and presented at conferences worldwide. He can be contacted at

Gina Celeste Costa has been a Spanish teacher and counselor at Dixon High School in Dixon, California, since 1983. She was a mentor teacher in 1991. With her department, Costa is working on developing a curriculum for her beginning and midlevel courses based on Total Physical Response Storytelling. She also teaches adult education Spanish classes in Woodland, California. Costa can be reached at

Nicholas D'Aglas relishes classroom teaching and curriculum development. He has had a diverse career in education in Australia. Highlights include working in audience development for cultural organizations including Zoos Victoria, the National Gallery of Victoria, and the Swan Hill Regional Gallery; and serving as president of the Education Subcommittee of the Museums Association of Victoria. He has worked in varied curriculum development roles, including acting senior policy officer for the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development and member of the consultative panel responsible for the development of curriculum guidelines for Victorian State Schools that are part of the new Victorian Essential Learnings curriculum. In his current role as head of arts and assistant curriculum coordinator, he leads the implementation of the Habits of Mind as a whole-school pedagogy at St. Albans Secondary College. He also represents his school as an active member of the Furlong Main Cluster—a group developing and implementing a mindful curriculum for preschool through grade 12.

Lisa Davis-Miraglia is a former professional developer in the Chappaqua Central School District in New York. She is certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards and is a graduate of Bank Street College of Education. Davis-Miraglia recently graduated with a master's degree in Educational Leadership from Teachers College, Columbia University. Her role as a professional developer includes working with and supporting teachers in building their repertoire of teaching techniques, experimenting with a variety of frameworks for learning, and demonstrating how to put theory into practice. In her most recent work of exploring the potential of technology and the impact it will have on teaching and learning, she helps teachers "re-vision" their classrooms for the future. Davis-Miraglia may be reached at 27 Tyler Rd., Putnam Valley, NY 10579. E-mail: or 845-528-0675.

Michael Goldfine teaches 12th grade English in the State College Area School District in Pennsylvania. For more than 20 years he has dedicated himself to moving the English curriculum toward greater relevancy. He earned a bachelor's degree in elementary education from Penn State, a secondary education degree from Lock Haven State, and a master's degree in literature from Middlebury College's Bread Loaf School of English. When not reading, he enjoys running on trails on Mount Nittany or baking bread in his kitchen. He lives with his wife, Kathleen, and two daughters, Kelson and Jael. He can be reached at

Emilie Hard is the principal of Glacier Park Elementary School in the Tahoma School District in Maple Valley, Washington. She has been a principal at GPES, a school with more than 850 students, since 2000 and is one of the main authors of the elementary curriculum units. She coauthored an integrated curriculum for the district with thinking skills and thinking habits at the core. She supports this curriculum by providing demonstration lessons, teacher inservice training, and instructional coaching in her role as principal. Hard has more than 20 years of elementary teaching experience in Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. She has also served on the Washington State Math Advisory Committee and was a member of the state's Classroom-Based Assessment Committee. Hard can be reached at the Tahoma School District Office, 23700 SE 280th St., Maple Valley, WA 98038; phone: 425-432-7294; fax: 425-432-6792; e-mail:

Georgette Jenson is a graduate of Wellington College of Education in New Zealand. She is the lead teacher at St. George's School in Wanganui, New Zealand, for the thinking skills program based on Costa and Kallick's Habits of Mind and David Hyerle's Thinking Maps®, and incorporating Dunn and Dunn's Learning Styles. In this role, she has tried ideas and developed classroom strategies much in demand by other teachers. Based on her background and practical experience, she is now a much sought-after consultant for Learning Network New Zealand and Spectrum Education. She can be contacted at

Carol T. Lloyd has been a secondary school mathematics teacher for more than 30 years. She retired from Cumberland County Schools in Fayetteville, North Carolina. She has conducted staff development in thinking skills, classroom management, and instructional strategies for the school system since 1992. Lloyd was a member of the Strategic Planning Committee for Thinking Skills in her district and helped develop and implement a training program on thinking skills for a system of 2,500 teachers. She has also presented on mathematics for regional and state conferences. Lloyd can be reached

Marjorie Martinez is a physical education teacher at Furr High School in Houston, Texas. In addition to her responsibilities with traditional high school classes, she teaches classes at the charter school called REACH and for the AVID program. She was a contributing member of the team that created REACH. She does not consider physical education to be "just a game." Rather, she treats physical education as a metaphor for a successful life.

Nadine McDermott teaches vocal and general music in grades 6 through 12 for the Hewlett-Woodmere Public Schools in Long Island, New York. Previously, she taught grades 5 through 12 in the Bronxville Schools in Westchester County, New York, where she first integrated the Habits of Mind into her chorus rehearsals and general music classes. She has presented nationally and throughout New York State on music assessment. She currently serves on the New York State Music Association Assessment Task Force, and she is the state chairperson for Classroom Music. McDermott can be reached at 280 Mirth Dr., Valley Cottage, NY 10989; phone: 914-268-0466; e-mail:

Barbara Owens is an admitted Art Costa and Bena Kallick groupie for 30 years of her nearly 40 years of teaching secondary English language arts. She recently took the challenge of leaving a highly successful comprehensive high school and moving to San Andreas High School, the continuation high school in the Tamalpais Union High School District in California. Just as in the traditional setting, this school with a high-risk student population requires her daily use of the Habits of Mind as well as teaching them explicitly to students. Teaching, implementing, and promoting dispositions for self-directed learners, students, and teachers is the heart and soul of her work to promote literacy and thinking skills for all. Her years in special education, literacy coaching, Advanced Placement, literacy portfolio design and assessment, state and district test preparation, and staff development have prepared her for her work in teacher professional development. She lives in Mill Valley, California, with her husband and daughter.

Rebecca Reagan is a retired 5th grade teacher in Lubbock, Texas, specializing in reading and writing. She received her bachelor of arts and master of science degrees in education from Texas Tech University. She has done extensive staff development work in the United States and abroad in the areas of critical and creative thinking and gifted education through the National Center for Teaching Thinking (P.O. Box 590607, Newton Center, MA 02459; phone: 617-965-4604; fax: 617-795-2606; e-mail:; website: She is the coauthor of Teaching Critical and Creative Thinking in Language Arts: A Lesson Book for Grades 5 & 6 with Robert Swartz and Mary Anne Kiser, and is the author of "Developing a Lifetime of Literacy," a chapter in Developing Minds, 3rd ed. Her personal e-mail address is

Kathleen C. Reilly retired from teaching 10th and 12th grade English at Edgemont High School in Scarsdale, New York. She was a teacher-researcher and adapted the Habits of Mind as a frame for the cumulative writing portfolios. Her research into the Habits of Mind and their application in her classroom was funded by grants from the Edgemont School Foundation entitled "Metaphor, Cognition, and Critical Thinking" and "Developing Minds: Strategies to Teach for Thinking." Currently, Reilly is the director of training with the Tri-State Consortium. She can be reached at 211 Newtown Turnpike, Wilton, CT 06897; phone: 203-834-0067; fax: 203-761-9124; e-mail:

Curtis Schnorr is the supervisor of elementary education and the Extended Enrichment Program for Carroll County Public Schools in Westminster, Maryland. Previously he was a school principal for 22 years. He spent seven years as principal at Friendship Valley Elementary School, helping to create a "home for the mind." He has been a presenter at state and national conferences on incorporating the Habits of Mind into a school culture. Schnorr can be reached at 517 Washington Rd., Westminster, MD 21157; phone: 410-876-1807; e-mail:

Nancy Skerritt is the assistant superintendent for teaching and learning in the Tahoma School District in Maple Valley, Washington. She has worked in the district for nearly 20 years and has developed the district's thinking skills curriculum. She has designed and published a training model for writing integrated curriculum with thinking skills and Habits of Mind as the core. Skerritt has conducted workshops in curriculum integration and thinking skills instruction. She is a member of the Washington State Assessment Advisory Committee, which is implementing a statewide performance-based assessment system. Before her work in curriculum development, Skerritt was a secondary language arts teacher and a counselor. Skerritt can be reached at the Tahoma School District Office, 25720 Maple Valley/Black Diamond Rd. SE, Maple Valley, WA 98038; phone: 425-432-4481; fax: 425-432-5792; e-mail:


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