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April 2-4, 2016
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ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show

2016 ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show

Learn. Teach. Lead.
Get the tools to put it all together at this can't-miss education conference—with more than 200 sessions and five inspirational keynote speakers.

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Handbook for the Art and Science of Teaching

by Robert J. Marzano and John L. Brown

Table of Contents

Module 7: Examining Similarities and Differences and Identifying Errors in Thinking

Design Question 2 deals with the initial presentation of information. Design Question 3, addressed in this module and the next two (Modules 8 and 9), deals with activities that help students practice and deepen their knowledge. Once again, it is important to keep in mind the distinctions and connections between declarative and procedural knowledge. Procedural knowledge (i.e., skills, strategies, and processes) is developed through a process of initial modeling followed by shaping (guided practice involving rehearsal and correction of missteps and misunderstandings) and eventual internalization of the procedure. Internalization is equivalent to automaticity, the capacity to independently apply a new procedure. In contrast to procedural knowledge, declarative knowledge (i.e., key information such as facts, generalizations, and principles) is developed through activities that require students to systematically review their initial understanding of information.

This module explores strategies for helping students develop their knowledge through a variety of comparison, contrast, and classification activities. This module also addresses a critically important but frequently overlooked aspect of teaching for understanding: direct instruction of rules of logic and logical fallacies.

Reflecting on Your Current Beliefs and Practices


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