1703 North Beauregard St.
Alexandria, VA 22311-1714
Tel: 1-800-933-ASCD (2723)
8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. eastern time, Monday through Friday
Local to the D.C. area: 1-703-578-9600
Toll-free from U.S. and Canada: 1-800-933-ASCD (2723)
All other countries: (International Access Code) + 1-703-578-9600
by Robert J. Marzano and John L. Brown
Table of Contents
Research confirms that a teacher's beliefs about a student's chances of success in school influence how that teacher acts toward that student, which, in turn, influences the student's achievement. If a teacher believes that a particular student cannot succeed, the teacher might unwittingly behave in ways that subvert that student's success—or at least do not facilitate that student's success.
Key ways that teachers—often unconsciously—communicate expectations to their students include their (1) affective tone (i.e., the extent to which the teacher establishes positive emotions in the classroom and reinforces cooperative behavior) and (2) quality of interactions with students (i.e., behaviors such as creating more output opportunities for high-expectancy students when answering questions or responding to learning tasks). As long as students receive differential treatment regarding affective tone and quality of interactions, a teacher is not providing fair and equitable learning opportunities for all students. Obviously, teachers must strive to exhibit equal behavior with high- and low-expectancy students.
This book is not a member benefit, but sample chapters have been selected for your perusal.
To read further, purchase this book in the ASCD Online Store.
Copyright © 2009 by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication—including the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief quotations in
critical reviews or articles—may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from ASCD.
Subscribe to ASCD Express, our free e-mail newsletter, to have practical, actionable strategies and information delivered to your e-mail inbox twice a month.
ASCD respects intellectual property rights and adheres to the laws governing them. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online.