Allington, R. L. (2001). What really matters for struggling readers: Designing research-based programs. New York: Longman.
Allington, R. L. (2009). What really matters in response to intervention: Research-based designs. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Alvermann, D. E., & Rush, L. S. (2004). Literacy intervention programs at the middle and high school levels. In T. L. Jetton & J. A. Dole (Eds.), Adolescent literacy research and practice (pp. 210–227). New York: The Guilford Press.
Ashton-Warner, S. (1959). Spinster. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Lee, D. S. (2002). A synthesis of empirical research on teaching mathematics to low-achieving students. Elementary School Journal, 103(1), 51–73.
Barnett, D. W., Daly, E. J., III, Jones, K. M., & Lentz, F. E., Jr. (2004). Response to intervention: Empirically based special service decisions from single-case designs of increasing and decreasing intensity. The Journal of Special Education, 38(2), 66–79.
Beavers, J. (1999). Developmental reading assessment. Parsippany, NJ: Celebration.
Beckman, M. (1990). Collaborative learning: Preparation for the workplace and democracy.
College Teaching, 38(4), 128–133.
Bolt, S. E., & Thurlow, M. L. (2004). Five of the most commonly allowed accommodations in state policy: Synthesis of research. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 141–152.
Brookhart, S. M. (2008). How to give effective feedback to your students. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Gersten, G. M., Scammacca, N. N., Funk, C., Winter, A., Shih, M., & Pool, C. (2008). The effects of Tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of first-grade students who are at risk for mathematics difficulty. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31(2), 47–63.
Buffum, A., Mattos, M., & Weber, C. (2009). Pyramid response to intervention: RTI, professional learning communities, and how to respond when kids don't learn. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
Burkins, J. (2009). Practical literacy coaching: A collection of tools to support your work. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Calhoun, E. F. (1994). How to use action research in the self-renewing school. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
California Department of Education. (2009). Resources—RtI2. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/ri/rtiresources.asp
Cobb, C. (2007). Training paraprofessionals to work effectively with all students. The Reading Teacher, 60(7), 686–689.
Cole, S., Horvath, B., Chapman, C., Deschenes, C., Ebeling, D., & Sprague, J. (2000).
Adapting curriculum and instruction in inclusive classrooms: A teacher's desk reference
(2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: Indiana Institute on Disability and Community.
Colon, J. (1982). A Puerto Rican in New York, and other sketches (2nd ed.). New York: International Publishers.
Deno, S. (2003). Developments in curriculum-based measurements. Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 184–192.
Desimone, L. (2002). How can comprehensive school reform models be successfully implemented? Review of Educational Research, 72, 433–480.
Diamond, M., & Hopson, J. (1998). Magic trees of the mind: How to nurture your child's intelligence, creativity and healthy emotions from birth through adolescence. New York: Dutton.
Dixon, C., & Nessel, D. (1983). Language experience approach to reading (and writing): Language experience reading for second language learners. Hayward, CA: Alemany.
Dong, Y. R. (2004/2005). Getting at the content. Educational Leadership, 62, 14–19.
Duffy, G. G. (2003). Explaining reading: A resource for teaching concepts, skills, and strategies. New York: The Guilford Press.
Dutro, S., & Moran, C. (2003). Rethinking English language instruction: An architectural approach. In G. G. Garcia (Ed.), English learners: Reaching the highest level of English literacy (pp. 227–258). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Moody, S. (2000). How effective are one-to-one tutoring programs in reading for elementary students at risk for reading failure? A meta-analysis of the intervention research. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 605–619.
Espin, C., Wallace, T., Lembke, E. S., Long, J. D., & Ticha, R. (2008). Curriculum-based measurement in writing: Predicting the success of high-school students on state standards tests. Exceptional Children, 74(2), 174–193.
Fisher, D. (2001). "We're moving on up": Creating a schoolwide literacy effort in an urban high school. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45, 92–101.
Fisher, D. (2004). Setting the "opportunity to read" standard: Resuscitating the SSR program in an urban high school. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48, 138–150.
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2007a). Checking for understanding: Formative assessment techniques for your classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2007b). Scaffolded writing instruction: Teaching with a gradual-release framework. New York: Scholastic.
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2009). Building background knowledge. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2008). Shared readings: Modeling comprehension, vocabulary, text structures, and text features for older readers. The Reading Teacher, 61, 548–557.
Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2009). Meeting AYP in a high need school: A formative experiment. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52, 386–396.
Fisher, D., Grant, M., Frey, N., & Johnson, C. (2007). Taking formative assessments schoolwide. Educational Leadership, 65(4), 64–68.
Fisher, D., & Ivey, G. (2006). Evaluating the interventions for struggling adolescent readers.
Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50, 180–189.
Foorman, B., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16, 203–212.
Frey, N. (2003). The gift of time: Providing literacy support to first grade struggling readers in an urban Professional Development School. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(2), 402.
Frey, N. (2006). The role of 1:1 individual instruction in reading. Theory into Practice, 45(3), 207–214.
Frey, N. (2007). Partnerships in RtI: A tale of two triangles. Keynote presentation at the 2007 Conference on Inclusive Education, Denver, CO.
Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (2009). Learning words inside and out: Vocabulary instruction that boosts achievement in all subject areas. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Frey, N., Fisher, D., & Everlove, S. (2009). Productive group work: How to engage students, build teamwork, and promote understanding. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Frey, N., Fisher, D., & Moore, K. (2009). Literacy letters: Comparative literature and formative assessment. The ALAN Review, 36(2), 27–33.
Gersten, R., Beckman, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J. R., & Witzel, B. (2009).
Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to intervention (RtI) for elementary and middle schools (NCEE 2009-4060). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute for Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from
Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C. M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L., Linan-Thompson, S., & Tilly, W. D. (2009). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to intervention (RtI) and multi-tier intervention in the primary grades (NCEE 2009-4045). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute for Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from
Gersten, R., & Dimino, J. A. (2006). RTI (Response to Intervention): Rethinking special education for students with reading difficulties (yet again). Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 99–108.
Good, R. H., Gruba, J., & Kaminski, R. (2002). Best practice in using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) in an outcomes-driven model. In A. Thomas & Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV (pp. 699–720). Bethesda, MD: NASP Publications.
Goodman, Y. (1985). Kidwatching: Observing children in the classroom. In A. Jaggar & M. T. Smith-Burke (Eds.), Observing the language learner (pp. 9–18). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Guthrie, J. T. (1996). Educational contexts for engagement in literacy. The Reading Teacher, 49, 432–445.
Hasbrouck, J., & Tindal, G. A. (2006). Oral fluency norms. A valuable assessment tool for reading teachers. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 636–644.
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, 81–112.
Heritage, M. (2009). Using self-assessment to chart students' paths. Middle School Journal, 40(5), 27–30.
Hill, J. D., & Flynn, K. M. (2006). Classroom instruction that works with English language learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Hinton, S. E. (2006). The outsiders. New York: Puffin.
Hosp, J. L. (2006). Assessment practices and response to intervention. NASP Communiqué, 34(7). Retrieved July 15, 2009, from
Ivey, G. (1999). A multicase study in the middle school: Complexities among young adolescent readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 34, 172–192.
Ivey, G. (2004). Content counts with urban struggling readers. In D. Lapp, C. C. Block, E. J. Cooper, J. Flood, N. Roser, & J. V. Tinajero (Eds.), Teaching all the children: Strategies for developing literacy in an urban setting (pp. 316–326). New York: The Guilford Press.
Ivey, G., & Broaddus, K. (2001). "Just plain reading": A survey of what makes students want to read in middle school classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(4), 350–371.
Ivey, G., & Fisher, D. (2006). When thinking skills trump reading skills. Educational Leadership, 64(2), 16–21.
Jimenez, F. (1999). The circuit. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Johnston, P. H. (1987). Teachers as evaluation experts. The Reading Teacher, 40, 744–748.
Johnston, P. H., & Allington, R. L. (1991). Remediation. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 984–1012). New York: Longman.
Johnston, P. H., & Winograd, P. N. (1985). Passive failure in reading. Journal of Reading Behavior, 17, 279–301.
Kane, T. (2004). The impact of after-school programs: Interpreting the results of four recent evaluations. New York: William T. Grant Foundation.
Karp, K., & Howell, P. (2004). Building responsibility for learning in students with special needs. Teaching Children Mathematics, 11, 118–126.
Kinney, J. (2007). Diary of a wimpy kid. New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers.
Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory.
Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254–284.
Krull, K. (1993). Lives of the musicians: Good times, bad times (and what the neighbors thought). San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace & Company.
Krull, K. (1995). Lives of the artists: Masterpieces, messes (and what the neighbors thought). San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace & Company.
Langer, G. M., Colton, A. B., & Goff, L. S. (2003). Collaborative analysis of student work: Improving teaching and learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Lapp, D., Fisher, D., Flood, J., & Cabello, A. (2000). An integrated approach to the teaching and assessment of language arts. In S. Hurley & J. Tinajero (Eds.), Literacy assessment of second language learners (pp. 1–26). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Lapp, D., Flood, J., & Goss, K. (2000). Desks don't move—students do: In effective classroom environments. The Reading Teacher, 54(1), 31–36.
LaPray, M., & Ross, R. (1969). The graded word list: Quick gauge of reading ability. Journal of Reading, 12(4), 305–307.
Leslie, L., & Allen, L. (1999). Factors that predict success in an early literacy intervention project. Reading Research Quarterly, 34(4), 404–424.
Leslie, L., & Caldwell, J. S. (2005). Qualitative reading inventory—4. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Mager, E. W. (1999). The instructor/coach: How to know one when you see one. Performance Improvement, 38(2), 26–32.
Mallette, B., Maheady, L., & Harper, G. F. (1999). The effects of reciprocal peer coaching on preservice general educators' instruction of students with special learning needs.
Teacher Education and Special Education, 22(4), 201–216.
Markow, D., Kim, A., & Liebman, M. (2007). The MetLife survey of the American teacher: The homework experience. New York: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.
Mayo, D. (2001). The house that Jack built. New York: Barefoot Books.
McCormick, S. (1994). A nonreader becomes a reader: A case study of literacy acquisition by a severely disabled reader. Reading Research Quarterly, 29, 157–176.
Meyer, M. S. (2000). The ability-achievement discrepancy: Does it contribute to an understanding of learning disabilities? Educational Psychology Review, 12(3), 315–337.
Moody, S. W., Vaughn, S., & Schumm, J. S. (1997). Instructional grouping for reading: Teachers' views. Remedial and Special Education, 18, 347–356.
Morris, D., Ervin, C., & Conrad, K. (1996). A case study of middle school reading disability.
The Reading Teacher, 49, 368–377.
Moss, L. (1995). Zin! Zin! Zin! A violin. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Muñoz, M. A., Potter, A. P., & Ross, S. M. (2008). Supplemental educational services as a consequence of the NCLB legislation: Evaluating its impact on student achievement in a large urban district. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 13(1), 1–25.
National Education Association. (2006). New roles in response to intervention: Creating success for schools and children. Available:
Paris, S. G. (2005). Reinterpreting the development of reading skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 40(2), 184–202.
Parker, F. W. (1886). The practical teacher. New York: E. L. Kellogg.
Pearson, P. D., & Gallagher, G. (1983). The gradual release of responsibility model of instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 112–123.
Perkins, S. J. (1998). On becoming a peer coach: Practices, identities, and beliefs of inexperienced coaches. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 13(3), 235–254.
Pianta, R. C., Belsky, J., Houts, R., & Morrison, F. (2007). Opportunities to learn in America's elementary classrooms. Science, 315, 1795–1796.
Raschka, C. (2000). Ring! Yo? New York: Dorling Kindersley.
Rice, J. K. (1999). The impact of class size on instructional strategies and the use of time in high school mathematics and science courses. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21(2), 215–229.
Riddle Buly, M., & Valencia, S.W. (2002). Below the bar: Profiles of students who fail state reading tests. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24, 219–239.
Rubenstein-Avila, E. (2003/2004). Conversing with Miguel: An adolescent English language learner struggling with later literacy development. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47, 290–301.
Ryan, P. M. (2002). When Marian sang. New York: Scholastic.
Santa, C., & Havens, L. (1995). Creating independence through student-owned strategies: Project CRISS. Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.
Schmitt, M. C. (1990). A questionnaire to measure children's awareness of strategic reading processes. The Reading Teacher, 43, 454–461.
Shanahan, T., & Shanahan, C. (2008). Teaching disciplinary literacy to adolescents: Rethinking content-area literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 78, 40–59.
Simmons, D. C., Coyne, M. D., Kwok, O., McDonagh, S., Harn, B. A., & Kame'enui, E. J. (2008). Indexing response to intervention: A longitudinal study of reading risk from kindergarten to third grade. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 41(2), 158–173.
Soldner, L. B. (1997). Self-assessment and the reflective reader. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 28(1), 5–11.
Steinbeck, J. (1939/2006). The grapes of wrath. New York: Penguin Classics.
Stichter, J. P., Stormont, M., & Lewis, T. J. (2009). Instructional practices and behavior during reading: A descriptive summary and comparison of practices in Title I and non-title elementary schools. Psychology in the Schools, 46(2), 172–183.
Studer, Q. (2003). Hardwiring excellence: Purpose, worthwhile work, making a difference. Gulf Breeze, FL: Fire Starter Publishing.
Summers, J. J. (2006). Effects of collaborative learning in math on sixth graders' individual goal orientations from a socioconstructivist perspective. Elementary School Journal, 106, 273–290.
Taylor, W. (1953). Cloze procedure: A new tool for measuring readability. Journalism Quarterly, 30, 414–438.
Tilly, W. D. (2008). Three tiers of intervention. School Administrator, 65(8), 20–23.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms
(2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Tomlinson, C. A., & Strickland, C. A. (2005). Differentiation in practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum, grades 9–12. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Totten, S., Sills, T., Digby, A., & Russ, P. (1991). Cooperative learning: A guide to research. New York: Garland.
U.S. Department of Education. (2005). OSERS: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services [home page]. Retrieved July 3, 2009, from
U.S. Department of Education. (2009). 21st century community learning centers [home page]. Retrieved November 9, 2009, from
Vellutino, F. R., & Scanlon, D. M. (2001). Emergent literacy skills, early instruction, and individual differences as determinants of difficulties in learning to read: The case for early intervention. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 295–321). New York: The Guilford Press.
Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Small, S., & Fanuele, D. P. (2006). Response to intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between children with and without reading disabilities: Evidence for the role of kindergarten and first-grade interventions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 157–169.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Walsh, J. A., & Sattes, B. D. (2005). Quality questioning: Research-based practices to engage every learner. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Wasik, B. A., & Slavin, R. E. (1993). Preventing early reading failure with one-to-one tutoring: A review of five programs. Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 178–200.
Waters, T., Marzano, R. J., & McNulty, B. (2003). Balanced leadership: What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement. Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning. Available:
Weasmer, J., & Woods, A. M. (1999). Programs in practice: Peer partnering for change.
Kappa Delta Pi Record, 36(1), 32–34.
Weitzman, J. P., & Glasser, R. P. (1998). You can't take a balloon into the Metropolitan Museum. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers.
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). Development of achievement motivation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Winerman, L. (2005). The mind's mirror. Monitor on Psychology, 36(9), 48–49.
Winograd, P., & Paris, S. G. (1989). A cognitive and motivational agenda for reading instruction. Educational Leadership, 46(4), 30–36.
Winter, J. (1998). My name is Georgia. San Diego, CA: Harcourt.
Winter, J. (2002). Frida. New York: Arthur A. Levine Books.
Wood, A. (1984). The napping house. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace & Company.
Worthy, J., & Broaddus, K. (2001/2002). Fluency beyond the primary grades: From group performance to silent, independent reading. The Reading Teacher, 55, 334–343.
Worthy, J., Broaddus, K., & Ivey, G. (2001). Pathways to independence: Reading, writing, and learning in grades 3–8. New York: The Guilford Press.
Worthy, J., Moorman, M., & Turner, M. (1999). What Johnny likes to read is hard to find in school. Reading Research Quarterly, 34, 12–27.