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ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show

2016 ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show

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Related Topics

How to Create and Use Rubrics for Formative Assessment and Grading

by Susan M. Brookhart

Table of Contents


Andrade, H. L., Du, Y., & Mycek, K. (2010). Rubric-referenced self-assessment and middle school students' writing. Assessment in Education, 17(2), 199–214.

Andrade, H. L., Du, Y., & Wang, X. (2008). Putting rubrics to the test: The effect of a model, criteria generation, and rubric-referenced self-assessment on elementary students' writing. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 27(2), 3–13.

Arter, J. A., & Chappuis, J. (2006). Creating and recognizing quality rubrics. Boston: Pearson.

Arter, J. A., & McTighe, J. (2001). Scoring rubrics in the classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Arter, J. A., Spandel, V., Culham, R., & Pollard, J. (1994). The impact of teaching students to be self-assessors of writing. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED370975.

Brookhart, S. M. (1993). Assessing student achievement with term papers and written reports. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 12(1), 40–47.

Brookhart, S. M. (1999). Teaching about communicating assessment results and grading. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 18(1), 5–13.

Brookhart, S. M. (2010). How to assess higher-order thinking skills in your classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Brookhart, S. M. (2011). Grading and learning: Practices that support student achievement. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

California State Department of Education. (1989). A question of thinking: A first look at students' performance on open-ended questions in mathematics. Sacramento, CA: Author. ERIC Document No. ED315289.

Chapman, V. G., & Inman, M. D. (2009). A conundrum: Rubrics or creativity/metacognitive development? Educational HORIZONS, 87(3), 198–202.

Chappuis, J. (2009). Seven strategies of assessment for learning. Boston: Pearson.

Chappuis, J., Stiggins, R., Chappuis, S., & Arter, J. (2012). Classroom assessment for student learning: Doing it right—using it well (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Chappuis, S., & Stiggins, R. J. (2002). Classroom assessment for learning. Educational Leadership, 60(1), 40–43.

Coe, M., Hanita, M., Nishioka, V., & Smiley, R. (2011, December). An investigation of the impact of the 6+1 Trait Writing model on grade 5 student writing achievement: Final report. NCEE Report 2012-4010. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Goldberg, G. L., & Roswell, B. S. (1999–2000). From perception to practice: The impact of teachers' scoring experience on performance-based instruction and classroom assessment. Educational Assessment, 6(4), 257–290.

Hafner, J. C., & Hafner, P. M. (2003). Quantitative analysis of the rubric as an assessment tool: An empirical study of student peer-group rating. International Journal of Science Education, 25(12), 1509–1528.

Heritage, M. (2010). Formative assessment: Making it happen in the classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Higgins, K. M., Harris, N. A., & Kuehn, L. L. (1994). Placing assessment into the hands of young children: A study of student-generated criteria and self-assessment. Educational Assessment, 2(4), 309–324.

Kozlow, M., & Bellamy, P. (2004). Experimental study on the impact of the 6+1 Trait® Writing Model on student achievement in writing. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved January 16, 2012, from

Lane, S., Liu, M., Ankenmann, R. D., & Stone, C. A. (1996). Generalizability and validity of a mathematics performance assessment. Journal of Educational Measurement, 33(1), 71–92.

Moss, C. M., & Brookhart, S. M. (2009). Advancing formative assessment in every classroom: A guide for instructional leaders. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Moss, C. M., & Brookhart, S. M. (2012). Learning targets: Helping students aim for understanding in today's lesson. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

Nitko, A. J., & Brookhart, S. M. (2011). Educational assessment of students (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

O'Connor, K. (2011). A repair kit for grading: 15 fixes for broken grades (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Parker, R., & Breyfogle, M. L. (2011). Learning to write about mathematics. Teaching Children Mathematics, 18(2), 90–99.

Perkins, D. N. (1981). The mind's best work. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ross, J. A., Hogaboam-Gray, A., & Rolheiser, C. (2002). Student self-evaluation in grade 5–6 mathematics: Effects on problem-solving achievement. Educational Assessment, 8, 43–58.

Ross, J. A., & Starling, M. (2008). Self-assessment in a technology-supported environment: The case of grade 9 geography. Assessment in Education, 15(2), 183–199.

Sadler, D. R. (1989). Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, 18, 119–144.

Wiliam, D. (2011). Embedded formative assessment. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.


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