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by Robert J. Marzano, Timothy Waters and Brian A. McNulty
Table of Contents
The average correlation of .25 produced in our meta-analysis was based on principal leadership defined in very general terms. However, researchers and theorists in school leadership have cautioned that such generality doesn't tell us much in a practical sense. For example, Wimpleberg, Teddlie, and Stringfield (1989) have exhorted that research on principal leadership not only must attend to general characteristics of behavior such as “has a vision,” but also must identify specific actions that affect student achievement. Consequently, we examined the 69 studies in our meta-analysis looking for specific behaviors related to principal leadership. We identified 21 categories of behaviors that we refer to as “responsibilities.” They are listed in Figure 4.1 on p. 42 along with their correlations with student achievement.
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