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by Robert J. Marzano
Table of Contents
The third school-level factor is “parent and community involvement.” It has to do with the extent to which parents (in particular) and the community at large (in general) are both supportive of and involved in a school. One or both of these two groups is identified in most attempts to synthesize the research on effective schooling. Parental and community involvement is mentioned explicitly in four of the five lists of school-level factors summarized in Figure 2.3, p. 19. (Edmonds excludes both.)
Not all types of parental or community involvement are beneficial to the effective running of a school. Speaking of parental involvement in particular, David Reynolds and Charles Teddlie (2000) explain
It is clear that parental involvement in such areas as criticism of the school or visits to the school to complain are likely to generate negative effectiveness at [the] school level. . . . On the other hand, there is too much evidence of the positive effects of parental involvement . . . (p. 151)
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