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Orlando, Fla.
October 31 - November 2, 2014
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2014 ASCD Conference on Educational Leadership

2014 ASCD Conference on Educational Leadership

October 31–November 2, 2014, Orlando, Fla.

Learn the secrets to great leadership practices, and get immediate and practical solutions that address your needs.

 

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SELECT and INSTITUTIONAL PLUS MEMBERS and NONMEMBERS

Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement

by Robert J. Marzano

Table of Contents

Technical Notes

This section contains technical notes referred to in the text.

Technical Note 1

To compute the average correlation between background knowledge and academic achievement, I first analyzed the correlations from the studies reported in Chapter 1 to determine outliers, using techniques reported by Tukey (1977). An outlier is a correlation that does not “fit” within a given set. It is either much larger or much smaller than the other correlations. I then transformed the remaining correlations using the Fisher Z transformation and computed the average of these transformed correlations. This step is necessary because differences between correlations do not constitute an equal interval scale. That is, differences between large correlations are not mathematically equal to differences between small correlations. The average Z transformed correlation was then transformed back to the original metric.

Technical Note 2

 

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