1703 North Beauregard St.
Alexandria, VA 22311-1714
Tel: 1-800-933-ASCD (2723)
8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. eastern time, Monday through Friday
Local to the D.C. area: 1-703-578-9600
Toll-free from U.S. and Canada: 1-800-933-ASCD (2723)
All other countries: (International Access Code) + 1-703-578-9600
by Robert J. Marzano
Table of Contents
A teacher-level factor that affects student achievement is “instructional strategies.” It is perhaps self-evident that more effective teachers use more effective instructional strategies. It is probably also true that effective teachers have more instructional strategies at their disposal.
Since the middle of the 20th century, chess masters have been a subject of fascination for psychologists (deGroot, 1946; Chase & Simon, 1973; Simon, 1980). One general conclusion is that over time they have learned to recognize thousands of possible chess piece arrangements and their associated counter moves. By one estimation, the chess master has acquired 50,000 such chunks of information (see Anderson, 1995). Using David Berliner's analogy (1986), we might reason that the expert teacher has acquired a wide array of instructional strategies along with the knowledge of when these strategies might be the most useful.
You must be an ASCD Select or Premium member to view this content. Log in.
Copyright © 2003 by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication—including the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief quotations in
critical reviews or articles—may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from ASCD.
Subscribe to ASCD Express, our free e-mail newsletter, to have practical, actionable strategies and information delivered to your e-mail inbox twice a month.
ASCD respects intellectual property rights and adheres to the laws governing them. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online.