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The fourth school-level factor is “a safe and orderly environment.” Its importance is evident. If teachers and students do not feel safe, they will not have the necessary psychological energy for teaching and learning. This factor's fourth place rating among the five school-level factors does not imply that it is unimportant. Without a minimum level of safety and order, a school has little chance of positively affecting student achievement.
Safety and order (by other names) are addressed in all five of the studies reviewed in Chapter 2. Edmonds calls them “a safe and orderly atmosphere conducive to learning”; Levine and Lezotte use “productive climate and culture.” Sammons calls them “learning environment,” “positive reinforcement,” and “pupil rights and expectations”; Bosker and Scheerens use the term “school climate.”