Conference Countdown
Atlanta, Ga.
April 2-4, 2016
  • membership
  • my account
  • help

    We are here to help!

    1703 North Beauregard Street
    Alexandria, VA 22311-1714
    Tel: 1-800-933-ASCD (2723)
    Fax: 703-575-5400

    8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. eastern time, Monday through Friday

    ASCD phone lines will be under maintenance on Friday, February 5, 4:00–6:00 p.m. ET.

    Local to the D.C. area: 1-703-578-9600, press 2

    Toll-free from U.S. and Canada: 1-800-933-ASCD (2723), press 2

    All other countries: (International Access Code) + 1-703-578-9600, press 2


  • Log In
  • Forgot Password?


ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show

2016 ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show

Learn. Teach. Lead.
Get the tools to put it all together at this can't-miss education conference—with more than 200 sessions and five inspirational keynote speakers.

Learn more and register.



ASCD respects intellectual property rights and adheres to the laws governing them. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online.

Policies and Requests

Translations Rights

Books in Translation

Premium, Select, and Institutional Plus Member Book (Jan 2003)
Log in to read this chapter.


What Works in Schools

by Robert J. Marzano

Table of Contents

Chapter 8. The Teacher-Level Factors

Now we turn our attention to those factors that affect individual students in the classroom—the independent impact that a teacher can have on student achievement. Naturally, an individual teacher is influenced by decisions the school makes (decisions that include a guaranteed and viable curriculum, challenging goals, and feedback). However, the teacher-level factors addressed here are primarily a function of decisions made by individual teachers, including instructional strategies, classroom management, and classroom curriculum design.

Before the mid-1980s, studies of effective schooling tended to look at school-level factors only, that is, the school as having a unitary and consistent impact on student achievement. Good and Brophy (1986) warned of the consequences of this perspective:

Studies of large samples of schools yield important profiles of more and less successful schools, but these are group averages [original emphasis] that may or may not describe how a single effective teacher actually behaves in a particular effective school. Persons who use research to guide practice sometimes expect all teachers' behavior to reflect the group average. Such simplistic thinking is apt to lead the literature to be too broadly and inappropriately applied. (p. 588)


You must be an ASCD Select or Premium member to view this content.

Log in.


Log in to submit a comment.

To post a comment, please log in above. (You must be an ASCD EDge community member.) Free registration