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by Robert J. Marzano and John L. Brown
Table of Contents
When reading this module, it is important to remember the distinctions between declarative and procedural knowledge. In the former, students extend and refine their understanding of key information such as facts, generalizations, and principles by constructing personal meaning and integrating new information into their existing cognitive schema. The activities described in Module 7 can be used with both declarative and procedural knowledge. However, they don't address advanced development of procedural knowledge.
In contrast, this module emphasizes ways to maximize students' complete learning of procedural knowledge. As students become fluent and independent in their use of procedures, they move toward a condition of automaticity in which they are able to retrieve and use the procedure as an essential part of their cognitive toolkit. When they achieve the level of automatic retrieval and independent application, they can be said to have truly "learned" a new procedure.
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