1703 North Beauregard St.
Alexandria, VA 22311-1714
Tel: 1-800-933-ASCD (2723)
8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. eastern time, Monday through Friday
Local to the D.C. area: 1-703-578-9600, press 2
Toll-free from U.S. and Canada: 1-800-933-ASCD (2723), press 2
All other countries: (International Access Code) + 1-703-578-9600, press 2
by Robert J. Marzano and John L. Brown
Table of Contents
When reading this module, it is important to remember the distinctions between declarative and procedural knowledge. In the former, students extend and refine their understanding of key information such as facts, generalizations, and principles by constructing personal meaning and integrating new information into their existing cognitive schema. The activities described in Module 7 can be used with both declarative and procedural knowledge. However, they don't address advanced development of procedural knowledge.
In contrast, this module emphasizes ways to maximize students' complete learning of procedural knowledge. As students become fluent and independent in their use of procedures, they move toward a condition of automaticity in which they are able to retrieve and use the procedure as an essential part of their cognitive toolkit. When they achieve the level of automatic retrieval and independent application, they can be said to have truly "learned" a new procedure.
This book is not a member benefit, but sample chapters have been selected for your perusal.
To read further, purchase this book in the ASCD Online Store.
Copyright © 2009 by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication—including the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief quotations in
critical reviews or articles—may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from ASCD.
Subscribe to ASCD Express, our twice-monthly e-mail newsletter, to have practical, actionable strategies and information delivered to your e-mail inbox twice a month.
ASCD respects intellectual property rights and adheres to the laws governing them. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online.