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April 2-4, 2016
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ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show

2016 ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show

Learn. Teach. Lead.
Get the tools to put it all together at this can't-miss education conference—with more than 200 sessions and five inspirational keynote speakers.

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Handbook for the Art and Science of Teaching

by Robert J. Marzano and John L. Brown

Table of Contents

Module 8: Helping Students Practice Skills, Strategies, and Processes

When reading this module, it is important to remember the distinctions between declarative and procedural knowledge. In the former, students extend and refine their understanding of key information such as facts, generalizations, and principles by constructing personal meaning and integrating new information into their existing cognitive schema. The activities described in Module 7 can be used with both declarative and procedural knowledge. However, they don't address advanced development of procedural knowledge.

In contrast, this module emphasizes ways to maximize students' complete learning of procedural knowledge. As students become fluent and independent in their use of procedures, they move toward a condition of automaticity in which they are able to retrieve and use the procedure as an essential part of their cognitive toolkit. When they achieve the level of automatic retrieval and independent application, they can be said to have truly "learned" a new procedure.

Reflecting on Your Current Beliefs and Practices


This book is not a member benefit, but sample chapters have been selected for your perusal.

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