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Rubrics for Formative Assessment and Grading (Quick Reference Guide)


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Rubrics are essential to help students learn how to learn and, when used correctly, are strong tools that support and enhance classroom instruction and student learning. But rubrics are often unclear and confusing for students, providing few specifics on what learning is meant to take place. In this quick reference guide, Susan M. Brookhart details how to create and use rubrics to improve assessment and understanding in the classroom. Brookhart identifies the two essential components that separate rubrics from other assessment tools, provides steps to critically review rubrics, and answers frequently asked questions about how to use rubrics when grading. She also outlines the differences between and uses of the four types of rubrics. Packed with information, sample rubrics, and strategies for student engagement, this guide is a great resource for any educator who wants to more effectively incorporate rubrics into the classroom.

About the authors

Susan M. Brookhart, PhD, is professor emerita in the School of Education at Duquesne University and an independent educational consultant working with schools, districts, regional educational service units, universities, and states doing professional development.

She was the 2007–2009 editor of Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice and is currently an associate editor of Applied Measurement in Education. She is the author or coauthor of numerous books on classroom assessment, teacher professional development, and evaluation.

Brookhart has been named the 2014 Jason Millman Scholar by the Consortium for Research on Educational Assessment and Teaching Effectiveness (CREATE) and is the recipient of the 2015 Samuel J. Messick Memorial Lecture Award from ETS/TOEFL.

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