Armstrong, T. (1987a). Describing strengths in children identified as "learning disabled" using Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences as an organizing framework.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 8A. (University Microfilms No. 8725-844)
Armstrong, T. (1987b). In their own way: Discovering and encouraging your child's personal learning style. New York: Tarcher/Putnam.
Armstrong, T. (1988). Learning differences—not disabilities. Principal, 68(1), 34–36.
Armstrong, T. (1997). The myth of the ADD child: 50 ways to improve your child's behavior and attention span without drugs, labels, or coercion. New York: Plume.
Armstrong, T. (1999a). 7 kinds of smart: Discovering and identifying your multiple intelligences— Revised and updated with information on two new kinds of smart. New York: Plume.
Armstrong, T. (1999b). ADD/ADHD alternatives in the classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Armstrong, T. (2003). You're smarter than you think: A kid's guide to multiple intelligences. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.
Armstrong, T. (2005, September). Special education and the concept of neurodiversity.
New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved June 23, 2008, from
Armstrong, T. (2006). The best schools: How human development research should inform educational practice. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Armstrong, T. (In press). When cultures connect: Multiple intelligences as a successful American export to other countries. In J. Q. Chen, S. Moran, & H. Gardner (Eds.), Multiple intelligences theory around the world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Associated Press. (1988, October 25). Poll finds Americans are ignorant of science. New York Times, p. C10.
Barnett, S. M., Ceci, S. J., & Williams, W. M. (2006). Is the ability to make a bacon sandwich a mark of intelligence? and other issues: Some reflections on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. In J. A. Schaler (Ed.), Howard Gardner under fire: The rebel psychologist faces his critics (pp. 95–114). Chicago: Open Court.
Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: David McKay.
Bonny, H., & Savary, L. (1990). Music and your mind. Barrytown, NY: Station Hill Press.
Brody, N. (2006). Geocentric theory: A valid alternative to Gardner's theory of intelligence. In J. A. Schaler (Ed.), Howard Gardner under fire: The rebel psychologist faces his critics (pp. 73–94). Chicago: Open Court.
Campbell, L., & Campbell, B. (2000). Multiple intelligences and student achievement: Success stories from six schools. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Carini, P. (1977). The art of seeing and the visibility of the person. Grand Forks, ND: Center for Teaching and Learning, University of North Dakota.
Caro, R. (1990). Means of ascent: The years of Lyndon Johnson (Vol. 2). New York: Knopf.
Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Chan, D. (2007). Musical aptitude and multiple intelligences among Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong: Do self-perceptions predict abilities? Personality and Individual Differences, 43(6), 1604–1615.
Chanda, S. (2001, March). Multiple ways of teaching and learning in Bangladesh. Teachers Forum. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from
Chen, J. Q., Moran, S., & Gardner, H. (In press). Multiple intelligences theory around the world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Chideya, A. (1991, December 2). Surely for the spirit, but also for the mind. Newsweek, 61.
Clark, R. W. (1972). Einstein: The life and times. New York: Avon.
Cohen, D. L. (1991, June 5). "Flow room," testing psychologist's concept, introduces "learning in disguise" at Key School. Education Week, 6–7.
Collins, J. (1998, October 19). Seven kinds of smart. Time, 94–96.
Comte, A. (1988). Introduction to positive philosophy. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.
Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (Eds.). (2005). The Sage book of qualitative research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Diaz-Lefebvre, R., & Finnegan, P. (1997). Coloring outside the lines: Applying the theory of multiple intelligences to the community college setting. Community College Journal, 68(2), 28–31.
Dilthey, W. (1989). Introduction to the human sciences: An attempt to lay a foundation for the study of society and history. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
Dreikurs, R. (1993). Logical consequences: The new approach to discipline. New York: Plume.
Edwards, B. (1989). Drawing on the right side of the brain (Rev. ed.). Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.
Ellison, L., & Rothenberger, B. (1999). In Bangladesh: The multiple ways of teaching and learning. Educational Leadership, 57(1), 54–57.
Engel, B. S. (1979). Informal evaluation. Grand Forks, ND: Center for Teaching and Learning, University of North Dakota.
Feldman, D. H. (1980). Beyond universals in cognitive development. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Fiske, E. B. (1987, January 11). U.S. pupils lag in math ability, 3 studies find. New York Times, pp. A1, A17–A18.
Fiske, E. B. (1988, May 24). In Indiana, public school makes "frills" standard. New York Times, pp. A16–A17.
Fleming, E. (1984). Believe the heart: Our dyslexic days. San Francisco: Strawberry Hill Press.
Furnham, A., & Akanda, A. (2004). African parents' estimation of their own and their children's multiple intelligences. Current Psychology, 22(4), 281–294.
Furnham, A., & Fukumoto, S. (2008). Japanese parents' estimates of their own and their children's multiple intelligences: Cultural modesty and moderate differentiation.
Japanese Psychological Research, 50(2), 63–76.
Furnham, A., & Wu, J. (2008). Gender differences in estimates of one's own and parental intelligence in China. Individual Differences Research, 6(1), 1–12.
Gadamer, H-G. (2005). Truth and method. New York: Continuum.
Gardner, H. (1979). The child is father to the metaphor. Psychology Today, 12(10), 81–91.
Gardner, H. (1987). Beyond IQ: Education and human development. Harvard Educational Review, 57(2), 187–193.
Gardner, H. (1989). To open minds: Chinese clues to the dilemma of contemporary education. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1993a). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences—10th anniversary edition. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (l993b). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1993c). Creating minds. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1995). Reflections on multiple intelligences: Myths and messages. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(3), 200–208.
Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner H. (2003, April 21). Multiple intelligences after twenty years. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.
Gardner, H. (2004). Audiences for the theory of multiple intelligences. Teachers College Record, 106(1), 212.
Gardner, H. (2006a). Multiple intelligences: New horizons in theory and practice. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (2006b). On failing to grasp the core of MI theory: A response to Visser et al.
Intelligence, 34(5), 503–505.
Gardner, H. (2006c). Replies to my critics. In J. A. Schaler (Ed.), Howard Gardner under fire: The rebel psychologist faces his critics (pp. 277–307). Chicago: Open Court.
Gardner, H., Feldman, D. H., & Krechevsky, M. (Eds.). (1998a). Project Zero frameworks for early childhood education, Vol. 1. Building on children's strengths: The experience of Project Spectrum. New York: Teachers College Press.
Gardner, H., Feldman, D. H., & Krechevsky, M. (Eds.). (1998b). Project Zero frameworks for early childhood education, Vol. 2. Project Spectrum: Early learning activities. New York: Teachers College Press.
Gardner, H., Feldman, D. H., & Krechevsky, M. (Eds.). (1998c). Project Zero frameworks for early childhood education, Vol. 3. Project Spectrum: Preschool assessment handbook. New York: Teachers College Press.
Gardner, H., & Moran, S. (2006). The science of multiple intelligences theory: A response to Lynn Waterhouse. Educational Psychologist, 4(4), 227–232.
Gentile, J. R. (1988). Instructional improvement: Summary and analysis of Madeline Hunter's essential elements of instruction and supervision. Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council.
Ghiselin, B. (1955). The creative process. New York: Mentor.
Gladwin, T. (1970). East is a big bird: Navigation and logic on Puluwat Atoll. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goertzel, V., Goertzel, M. G., & Goertzel, T. G. (2004). Cradles of eminence: Childhoods of more than 700 famous men and women. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.
Goleman, D. (2006). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam.
Goodlad, J. I. (2004). A place called school—20th anniversary edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Goodman, J., & Weinstein, M. (1980). Playfair: Everybody's guide to noncompetitive play. San Luis Obispo, CA: Impact.
Gordon, W. J. J., & Poze, T. (1966). The metaphorical way of learning and knowing. Cambridge, MA: Porpoise.
Gottfredson, L. S. (2004). Schools and the "g" factor. Wilson Quarterly, 28(3), 35–45.
Gould, S. J. (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: W. W. Norton.
Grandin, T., & Johnson, C. (2006). Animals in translation: Using the mysteries of autism to decode animal behavior. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Green, W. (1999, September). The bourgeois gentleman, multiple intelligences theory, and public law courses. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, GA.
Greenhawk, J. (1997). Multiple intelligences meet standards. Educational Leadership, 5(1), 62–64.
Gruber, H. (1977). Darwin's "tree of nature" and other images of wide scope. In J. Wechsler (Ed.), On aesthetics in science (pp. 121–142). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Gundian, X., & Anrìquez, C. (1999, September). An innovative project for Chilean education: Colegio Amancay de La Florida. New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from
Harman, W., & Rheingold, H. (1984). Higher creativity: Liberating the unconscious for breakthrough insights. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.
Hart, L. (1981). Don't teach them; help them learn. Learning, 9(8), 39–40.
Herman, J. L., Aschbacher, P. R., & Winters, L. (1992). A practical guide to alternative assessment. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Hoerr, T. R. (2000). Becoming a multiple intelligences school. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Illingworth, R. S., & Illingworth, C. M. (1966). Lessons from childhood: Some aspects of the early life of unusual men and women. London: Livingstone.
Johnson, D., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. (1994). The new circles of learning: Cooperation in the classroom and school. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
John-Steiner, V. (1987). Notebooks of the mind: Explorations of thinking. New York: Harper & Row.
Jung, T., & Kim, M-H. (2005). The application of multiple intelligences theory in South Korea: The Project Spectrum approach for young children. School Psychology International, 26(5), 581–594.
Kluth, P. (2003). You're going to love this kid!: Teaching students with autism in the inclusive classroom. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co.
Kornhaber, M., Fierros, E., & Veenema, S. (2003). Multiple intelligences: Best ideas from research and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.
Kovalik, S. (1993). ITI: The model—Integrated Thematic Instruction (2nd ed.). Black Diamond, WA: Books for Educators.
Kovalik, S. (2001). Exceeding expectations: A user's guide to implementing brain research in the classroom. Black Diamond, WA: Books for Educators.
Kunkel, C. (2007). The power of Key: Celebrating 20 years of innovation at the Key Learning Community. Phi Delta Kappan, 89(3), 204–209.
Lemke, M., Sen, A., Pahlke, E., Partelow, L., Miller, D., Williams, T., Kastberg, D., & Jocelyn, L. (2004). International outcomes of learning in mathematics literacy and problem solving: PISA 2003 results from the U.S. perspective. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Manila Times. (2008, June 15). Multiple Intelligence High School: A school for future responsible entrepreneurs. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from
Marchand-Martella, N. E., Slocum, T. A., & Martella, R. E. (2003). An introduction to direct instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.
Margulies, N. (1991). Mapping inner space: Learning and teaching mind mapping. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Press.
Margulies, N. (1995). The magic seven: Tools for building multiple intelligences. Chicago: Zephyr Press.
Marzano, R. J., Brandt, R. S., Hughes, C. S., Jones, B. F., Presseisen, B. Z., & Rankin, S. C. (1988). Dimensions of thinking: A framework for curriculum and instruction. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Matthews, G. B. (1996). The philosophy of childhood. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McCloskey, D. N., & Ziliak, S. (2008). The cult of statistical significance: How standard error costs us jobs, justice, and lives. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
McCoy, L. E. (1975). Braille: A language for severe dyslexics. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 8(5), 34.
McKenzie, W. (2005). Multiple intelligences and instructional technology (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.
McKim, R. H. (1980). Experiences in visual thinking (2nd ed.). Boston: PWS Engineering.
Merrefield, G. E. (1997). Three billy goats and Gardner. Educational Leadership, 55(1), 58–61.
Miller, A. (1981). The drama of the gifted child. New York: Basic Books.
Mohktar, I. A., Majid, S., & Fu, S. (2007). Information literacy education through mediated learning and multiple intelligences. Reference Services Review, 35(3), 463–486.
Montessori, M. (1972). The secret of childhood. New York: Ballantine.
Morrison, P., & Morrison, P. (1994). Powers of ten. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Nelsen, J. (1999). Positive time-out and over 50 ways to avoid power struggles in the home and the classroom. New York: Prima.
Nord, W. A., & Haynes, C. C. (1998). Taking religion seriously across the curriculum. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Olson, L. (1988, January 27). Children "flourish" here: 8 teachers and a theory changed a school world. Education Week, 18–19.
Ostrander, S., & Schroeder, L. (1979). Superlearning. New York: Delta.
Paul, R. (1992). Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world. Santa Rosa, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
Perkins, D. N. (1981). The mind's best work. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Plato. (1952). The dialogues of Plato (B. Jowett, Trans.). In R. M. Hutchins (Ed.), Great books of the Western world (Vol. 7). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Polya, G. (1957). How to solve it. New York: Anchor Books.
Polyani, K. (1974). Personal knowledge: Toward a post-critical philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Popham, J. (2008). Transformative assessment. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Poplin, M. (1984). Summary rationalizations, apologies, and farewell: What we don't know about the learning disabled. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7(2), 133.
Posner, M. I. (2004). Neural systems and individual differences. Teachers College Record, 106(1), 24–30.
Proust, M. (1928). Swann's way. New York: Modern Library.
Recer, P. (2002, April 30). Study: Science literacy poor in U.S. Associated Press.
Reed, J. (2007, September). Learning with IB. IB World. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from
Ribot, N. (2004, March). My experience using the Multiple intelligences. New Horizons of Learning. Retrieved March 17, 2009, from
Rose, C. (1987). Accelerated learning. New York: Dell.
Rosenthal, R., & Jacobsen, L. (2004). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils' intellectual development. New York: Crown House Publishing.
Rozin, P., Poritsky, S., & Sotsky, R. (1971, March 26). American children with reading problems can easily learn to read English represented by Chinese characters. Science, 171(3977), 1264–1267.
Sacks, O. (1985). The man who mistook his wife for a hat. New York: HarperCollins.
Sacks, O. (1990). Seeing voices: A journey into the world of the deaf. New York: Harper Collins.
Sacks, O. (1995). An anthropologist on Mars. New York: Vintage.
Sarangapani, P. M. (2000). The great Indian tradition. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from
Schirduan, V., & Case, K. (2004). Mindful curriculum leadership for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Leading in elementary schools using multiple intelligences theory (SUMIT). Teachers College Record, 106(1), 87–95.
Schmidle, N. (2007, January 22). Reforming Pakistan's "dens of terror." Retrieved July 10, 2008, from
Scripp, L. (1990). Transforming teaching through arts PROPEL portfolios: A case study of assessing individual student work in the high school ensemble. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Shearer, B. (1994). Multiple Intelligence Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS). Kent, OH: Multiple Intelligences Research and Consulting.
Shearer, B. (2004). Multiple intelligences after 20 years. Teachers College Record, 106(1), 2–16.
Silver, H., Strong, R., & Perini, M. (1997). Integrating learning styles and multiple intelligences.
Educational Leadership, 55(1), 22–29.
Spearman, C. (1927). The abilities of man: Their nature and measurement. London: Macmillan.
Spolin, V. (1986). Theater games for the classroom. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Steiner, R. (1964). The kingdom of childhood. London: Rudolf Steiner Press.
Swami, V., Furnham, A., & Kannan, K. (2006). Estimating self, parental, and partner intelligences: A replication in Malaysia. Journal of Social Psychology, 146(6), 645–655.
Taylor-King, S. (1997, July 9). Using multiple intelligences and multisensory reinforcement approaches to enhance literacy skills among homeless adults. Paper presented at the International Congress on Challenges to Education, Kihei, Hawaii. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 417 332)
Teele, S. (1992). Teele Inventory for Multiple Intelligences (TIMI). Redlands, CA: Sue Teele & Associates, Inc.
Traub, J. (1998, October 26). Multiple intelligence disorder. The New Republic, 219(17), 20–23.
U.S. Department of Education. (2003). Identifying and implementing educational practices supported by rigorous evidence: A user friendly guide. Washington, DC: Author.
Viadero, D. (1991, March 13). Music and arts courses disappearing from curriculum, commission warns. Education Week, 4.
Visser, B., Ashton, M., & Vernon, P. (2006). Beyond G: Putting multiple intelligences to the test. Intelligence, 34(5), 487–502.
Wallis, C. (2008, June 8). No Child Left Behind: Doomed to fail? Time. Available:
Walters, J., & Gardner, H. (1986, March 30). The crystallizing experience: Discovery of an intellectual gift. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 254 544)
Waterhouse, L. (2006). Multiple intelligences, the Mozart effect, and emotional intelligence: A critical review. Educational Psychologist, 4(4), 207–225.
Weinreich-Haste, H. (1985). The varieties of intelligence: An interview with Howard Gardner.
New Ideas in Psychology, 3(4), 47–65.
Weinstein, C. (1979). The physical environment of the school: A review of the research.
Review of Educational Research, 49(4), 585.
Williams, W., Blythe, T., White, N., Li, J., Sternberg, R., & Gardner, H. (1996). Practical intelligence for school. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers.
Willingham, D. (2004). Reframing the mind. Education Next, 4(3), 19–24.
Wolf, D., LeMahieu, P., & Eresh, J. (1992). Good measure: Assessment as a tool for educational reform. Educational Leadership, 49(8), 8–13.
Zessoules, R., & Gardner, H. (1991). Authentic assessment: Beyond the buzzword and into the classroom. In V. Perrone (Ed.), Assessment in schools (pp. 47–71). Washington, DC: ASCD.