*180 − 10x*you wrote—whose money is this?" He nudges others forward: "So you counted all the way? Is there an easier method to find the answer?" And he supports and acknowledges more complex approaches: "If you try combining this and that, you can make a mathematical expression." "So you wrote a simultaneous equation—OK!"

*kikan-shidō*(between-desks instruction). We encountered this practice firsthand while teaching and coordinating professional development at a K–12 school in Saitama, Japan (Ermeling & Graff-Ermeling, 2014).

## From Japan …

*kikan-shidō*while participating in lesson study (

*jugyō kenkyū*) in Japan with a district-level research group for English teachers. The central feature of lesson study is observing and analyzing live classroom research lessons that a group of teachers has collaboratively planned (Ermeling & Graff-Ermeling, 2014; Lewis, 2002).

*kikan-shidō*, pointing out that most of the instruction the teacher delivered when moving around the classroom focused on a few pairs of students who struggled with the exercise, whereas intermediate and advanced students received little guidance or support.

*kikan-shidō*without neglecting those who struggled with the content.

*kikan-shidō*as part of regular lesson preparation, as did our analysis of videos from our own classroom lessons. We saw that the unplanned, cursory exchanges we had with students when they were working on an assignment in class mostly reiterated previous instruction and seldom advanced student learning. We came to understand that the teacher's role during student work time in class—what we chose to focus on, how long we spent with each team or individual, what we chose to say or not say—had crucial instructional value. Improving the use of this time required careful planning.

*kikan-shidō*to engage and support students' independent work:

The teacher purposely speaks loudly when giving advice to a student so that other students can hear … the teacher could exploit the advantages of a whole-class instruction method … by doingkikan-shidō. The teacher instructs students while strolling among the students' desks, thinking about the upcoming order of presentations for successful whole-class instruction … The teacher carries a lesson plan sheet and writes down the students' understandings of—or difficulties with—a solution, while instructing individual students. (UCLA & the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, n.d., 05:10)

## To the United States

*kikan-shidō*can prove valuable to U.S. teachers as they work to address new and more rigorous standards in math, science, and English language arts. The intentional use of

*kikan-shidō*can elicit, prod, and facilitate deeper learning in all students.

*kikan-shidō*: (1) monitoring student activity, (2) guiding student activity, (3) organizing materials and the physical setup, and (4) engaging students in social talk. The examples we provide below come from our direct observations of more than 20 U.S. teachers working to improve between-desks instruction and facilitate deeper learning.

## Function 1. Monitoring Student Activity

Your friend has interviewed for two different sales positions in competing companies. The Stellar Company pays $500 per week plus 10 percent commission on the total dollars from sales per week. The Lunar Company pays $200 per week but offers a 20 percent commission on the total dollars from sales per week. Sales at both companies are seasonal. Your friend wants some help determining which job option is best.

## Function 2. Guiding Student Activity

*pace*of a chemical reaction, an important scientific observation.

## Function 3. Organizing Materials and the Physical Setup

## Function 4. Engaging in Social Talk

*A*in class—and that's your proof that you can tutor other students.

*That*'s your new hustle!" The teacher later explained that she often looks for opportunities to offer students alternative choices to counter the more negative influences of their environment.

## Preparing for Kikan-Shidō

*kikan-shidō*by thinking through a series of questions and constructing a clear mental image of the lesson activity: What are my goals as I circulate? How will I distribute my time with various groups and differentiate support? What key understandings or misconceptions will I be looking for? What probing questions will I use to check for understanding or advance student thinking? What will I be careful not to say or do that might decrease the rigor of the task? What materials will I need to distribute? When should I engage in brief social conversation with students to provide encouragement and build relationships?

*kikan-shidō*, such as providing feedback on pronunciation and intonation, encouraging students to work on memorization, and providing additional instruction to students who were reciting lines without a communicative purpose.

*kikan-shidō*is also useful; teachers can review the plan on the spot and take notes as they observe. This kind of planning and reflection will help them develop increasingly nuanced understandings of the choices presented in each

*kikan-shidō*episode and the effect these choices have on student learning.

## Persisting with Kikan-Shidō

I just got my scores back: 18/20 passes = 90 percent. Seven students received a 5, six received a 4, which is so much higher than any class ever before. I'm so happy for my students, I just sat down, closed the door … and cried and cried and gave thanks. I have to believe I changed the way I taught, that making them struggle really bridged the gap. This was my most enjoyable year of teaching in my 28 years. (p. 386)

## From Insights to Change

*kikan-shidō*, will influence learning and how student responses, in turn, might influence teacher actions. It means persevering long enough to understand the nuances of effective implementation—and translating these into practical teacher knowledge and tangible student results.